Phrase Particles

DRAFT

Phrase particle Functions Relevant expressions

 

1.     Contrast: Noun Xは? (2-6 BTS 22)

2.     Topic: As for X (3-2 BTS 7)

1.     Connecting Nouns ‘and’ and ‘with’ (3-2 BTS 10)

2.     Comparison: Noun + と + Sentence (6-6 BTS 25)

3.     Quotation with と・(っ)て (7-3 BTS 9)

1.  Xと一緒に ‘together with’ (3-3 BTS 17)

2.  Name + といいます・おっしゃいます・申します (6-2 BTS 6)

3.  Noun + と + Sentence (6-6 BTS 25)

4.  Sentenceと思う (7-4 BTS 12)

5.  Xと・に代わる (11-1 BTS 3)

6.  と・って言うか (18-3 BTS 9)

7.  〜としては・も (19-1 BTS 3)

って 1.     Topic (3-1 BTS 4)

2.     Quotation with と・(っ)て (7-3 BTS 9)

1.     と・って言うか (18-3 BTS 9)
1.     の as a Connecter (3-2 BTS 2)

2.     の as a Noun (3-6 BTS 29)

1.     Nouns modifying Nouns: Nの・なN (3-1 BTS 2)

2.     Noun + のこと ‘a matter of noun’ (3-1 BTS 5)

3.     Sentence + の (9-1 BTS 2)

 

1.     Timeに (3-4 BTS 20)

2.     Location にあります・います (3-6 BTS 30)

3.     Relative time (4-4 BTS 20)

4.     Place/goal (5-4 BTS 8)

5.     Decision: カレーにします (6-6 BTS 28)

6.     Purpose (9-2 BTS 5) (A Verb stem+ に + motion verb)

7.     Giving verbs

8.     Marks the person from whom you get something: Verbs of receiving: もらう・いただく and 〜てもらう・いただく (12-1 BTS 4 BTS 9)

9.     Marks the person who is made or allowed to do something (17-3 BTS 5 Causative Verb form: させる)

10.  Marks the original subject: Passive verbs (18-1 BTS 1)

1.     Change of state: noun + になります・なりました (6-2 BTS 7)

2.     Xと・に代わる (11-1 BTS 3)

3.     〜ことにする (11-3 BTS 7)

4.     朝に強い・弱い (12-4 BTS 12)

5.     Nounにしては・も (18-1 BTS 2)

 

1.     Place [of Activity]で (3-4 BTS 15)

2.     Means (5-4 BTS 9)

1.     Noun + です in the 〜て form (5-1 BTS 1b)

2.     で、 at the Beginning of a Sentence (12-3 BTS 8)

3.     Nounでも (14-6 BTS 19)

1.     Additional [also, too] (3-6 BTS 31)

 

1.     Question word + も(6-6 BTS 22)

2.     All or nothing: Quantity + も + negative or affirmative Sentences (9-6 BTS 17)

だけ 1.     Xだけ (4-2 BTS 9) As a sentence particle

1.     Sentence + だけ (17-6 BTS 6)

Sentence + だけ〜てみる (20-3 BTS 7)

とか

 

1.     Listing (4-2 BTS 8)

2.     Multiple particle とかも(4-2 BTS 10)

Other expressions

1.  何とかスーパー (7-6 BTS 19)

2.  なんか (13-1BTS 2)

 

As a sentence particle

1.     Sentenceとか (10-6 BTS 11)

1.     Subject marker (4-3 BTS 13)

2.     Object marker: Double-ga sentences (4-6 BTS 27)

1.     Describing people: 背が高い・背が低い人 (6-3 BTS 13)
から

 

1.     Origin/source (4-4 BTS 22)

2.     Marks the person from whom you get something: Verbs of receiving: もらう・いただく and 〜てもらう・いただく

1.     Phrase particle + です (4-4 BTS 23)

2.     Phrase particle + です (6-2 BTS 5)

 

 

As a clausal particle

3.     Reasons (5-5 BTS 12)

4.     Phrase particle + です (4-4 BTS 23; 6-2 BTS 5)

5.     〜んだから ‘Because, as you must surely know’ (8-2 BTS 5)

6.     Specifying order of events: Verb 〜てから (9-6 BTS 15)

7.     だから as a discourse connector (21-6 BTS 12)

まで

 

1.     Origin/source (4-4 BTS 22)

2.     Time までに (5-5 BTS 13)

1.     Phrase particle + です (4-4 BTS 23)

2.     Phrase particle + です (6-2 BTS 5)

1.     Object (4-5 BTS 24)

2.     Locationを(7-6 BTS 17)

 

1.     Place/goal (5-4 BTS 8)

 

より 1.     Compared to: Comparison of two items (6-6 BTS 24) As a sentence particle

1.     Comparisons of two activities (10-6 BTS 12)

ほど 1.     As much as: Comparison of two items (6-6 BTS 24)

2.     [quantity] + ほど (about, as many as) (19-6)

As a sentence particle

1.  〜れば〜ほど (20-5 BTS 9)

 

1.     Either X or Y (6-6 BTS 23) As a sentence particle

1.     Question marker (2-1 BTS 3)

2.     Multiple Sentence Particles かなあ、かねえ (2-7 BTS 24)

3.     Multiple particle: よね (3-6 BTS 33)

 

4.     Embedded yes/no questions (12-2 BTS 4)

 

5.     Embedded information questions (12-3 BTS 6)

なんか 1.     For example (casual), something/anything like that (13-1 BTS 2)
しか 1.     しか + Negative (13-1 BTS 3) As a sentence particle

1.     しか + Negative (13-1 BTS 3)

2.     Non-past Sentence + しかない (18-2 BTS 5)

でも 1.     Nounでも (14-6 BTS 19)

2.     一度Question Word + Phrase Particle + でも (15-4 BTS 11)

3.     たとえNounでも (18-6 BTS 13)

(At the beginning of a sentence) But, however, and yet (5-1 Special expression)

 

Te-form of です

1.     Nounでも (5-1 BTS 2b)

2.     XでもYでも Whether it’s X or Y (5-1 Special expression)

1.     Things like (17-7R BTL 1)
ばかり 2.     Exclusivity: Nばかり・ばっかり (22-2 BTS 3) As a sentence particle

1.     Past Sentenceばかり・ばっかり (22-1 BTS 1)

2.     Non-past sentence + ばかり・ばっかり (22-4 BTS 4)

3.     〜てばかり・ばっかり (22-6 BTS 12)

さえ 1.     If and only if (22-3 BTS 8)
など 1.     And the like, et cetera (22-2 BTS 5)

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