Sentence Particles

DRAFT

Sentence particles Functions NOTES
1.     Question marker (2-1 BTS 3)

2.     Embedded yes/no questions (12-2 BTS 4)

3.     Embedded information questions (12-3 BTS 6)

As a phrase particle:

1. Either X or Y (6-6 BTS 23)

1.     Confirmation (2-1 BTS 3)

2.     Rising vs. falling intonation (2-3 BTS 14)

1.     Certainty/new information (2-2 BTS 6)
ねえ 1.     Assuming shared attitude/opinion from others (2-3 BTS 3; 2-6 BTS 23, 24)

 

けど

(けれども)

 

 

 

1.     Contrast/Background information (2-4 BTS 16)
1.     Contrast/Background information (2-4 BTS 16) As a phrase particle

1.     Subject marker (4-3 BTS 13)

2.     Object marker: Double-ga sentences (4-6 BTS 27)

なあ 2.     Shared agreement (2-6 BTS 23, 24)

 

かねえ 1.     Shared question (Multiple Sentence Particles かなあ、かねえ (2-7 BTS 24)
かなあ 1.     Shared question (self-directed) (Multiple Sentence Particles かなあ、かねえ (2-7 BTS 24)
よね 1.     Multiple particle: よね (3-6 BTS 33)
から

 

1.     Reasons (5-5 BTS 12)

2.     Phrase particle + です (4-4 BTS 23; 6-2 BTS 5)

3.     〜んだから ‘Because, as you must surely know’ (8-2 BTS 5)

4.     Specifying order of events: Verb 〜てから (9-6 BTS 15)

5.     だから as a discourse connector (21-6 BTS 12)

As a phrase particle

1.     Origin/source (4-4 BTS 22)

1.     Sentence + し: 教えるの好きだし (9-3 BTS 9)
1.     (informal) topic marker (12-3 BTS 7)

2.     Assertion/new information (12-3 BTS 7)

 

1.     Emphasis (Rising intonation—feminine) (20-6 BTS 8)

2.     Emphasis (Falling intonation—both) (20-6 BTS 8)

1.     Force or emphasis (21-4 BTS 7)
かしら 1.     Wondering (22-2 BTS 6)
1.     Force or emphasis (blunt) (23-2 BTS 4)
1.     Negative imperative: Verb + な (23-2 BTS2) As a phrase particle

1.     Nouns modifying Nouns: Nの・なN

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